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The Spirit Cave mummies of Fallon, Nevada in North America were accurately dated at more than 9,400 years old.
Before this discovery, the oldest known deliberate mummy was a child, one of the Chinchorro mummies found in the Camarones Valley, Chile, which dates around 5050 BC.
The tool was a rod, made of an organic material, that was used to break apart the brain to allow it to drain out of the nose.
This discovery helped to dispel the claim within Herodotus' works that the rod had been a hook made of iron.
The Medieval English term "mummy" was defined as "medical preparation of the substance of mummies", rather than the entire corpse, with Richard Hakluyt in 1599 AD complaining that "these dead bodies are the Mummy which the Phisistians and Apothecaries doe against our willes make us to swallow". The OED defines a mummy as "the body of a human being or animal embalmed (according to the ancient Egyptian or some analogous method) as a preparation for burial", citing sources from 1615 AD onward.
define a mummy as follows: "A human or animal body desiccated by exposure to sun or air.
Earlier experimentation in 1994 by researchers Bob Brier and Ronald Wade supported these findings.
More than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies.
The first modern scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt.
The first X-ray of a mummy came in 1903, when professors Grafton Elliot Smith and Howard Carter used the only X-ray machine in Cairo at the time to examine the mummified body of Thutmose IV.
By utilizing current advancements in technology, scientists have been able to uncover a plethora of new information about the techniques used in mummification.
A series of CT scans performed on a 2,400-year-old mummy in 2008 revealed a tool that was left inside the cranial cavity of the skull.
British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming.