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During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation.
The city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, and was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world.
The same year, the French and Indian War, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began; it ended in 1763 with French defeat, resolving a situation that had been a constant threat to Albany and held back its growth.
In 1775, with the colonies in the midst of the Revolutionary War, the Stadt Huys became home to the Albany Committee of Correspondence (the political arm of the local revolutionary movement), which took over operation of Albany's government and eventually expanded its power to control all of Albany County.
The city was officially chartered in 1686 under English rule.
It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War.
In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany.In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector.Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services.The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck near Fort Orange.In 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the then Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The Dongan Charter was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier.