100 gothic dating
From the very earliest tool-cultures of the Paleolithic era, sculptural progress has been marked by the discovery of new materials and equipment.
Amazingly, by the birth of Christ, most of the sculptor's traditional methods and techniques had already been discovered, including bronzework and the refined goldsmithery practised by nomadic tribes.
A ratio of one half would be, once again, a hemisphere. Elliptical ogives are mainly used in pistol bullets.
Missiles and aircraft generally have much more complex ogives, such as the von Kármán ogive.
Another common ogive for bullets is the elliptical ogive.
This is a curve very similar to the spitzer ogive, except that the circular arc is replaced by an ellipse defined in such a way that it meets the axis at exactly 90°.
The earliest figurative sculpture is the ivory carving known as the Lion Man of the Hohlenstein Stadel (38,000 BCE).
If this arc is drawn so that it meets the shank at zero angle (that is, the distance of the centre of the arc from the axis, plus the radius of the shank, equals the radius of the arc), then it is called a tangent or spitzer ogive.
This is a very common ogive for high velocity (supersonic) rifle bullets.
Every major architectural movement has been accompanied by huge demand for sculptures of all kinds.
Another early type of Stone Age sculpture are the miniature obese figurines called Venuses: such as the Venuses of Willendorf, Kostenky, Monpazier, Dolni Vestonice, Moravany, Brassempouy, and Gagarino.